My third cousin Irene (found with DNA) complained to me via email that her ethnicity results at 23andMe were very different from Ancestry; what was going on? Irene’s recent ancestry is known to be half Norwegian (my side) and half Scottish with some Irish (about 6% expected) mixed in.
So I looked and saw that 23andMe (above right) has a very low estimate for Scandinavian for her, while the British and Irish (her Scottish) is fine. Ancestry DNA (above left) has the Scandinavian predicted correctly but calls her Scottish both Irish and Western European. At least it includes her in a Scots genetic community which is correct and very cool.
Since I had also uploaded her DNA results to Family Tree DNA, I checked there and saw that they correctly predicted 49% Scandinavian. However the Scottish shows as 36% British Isles followed by some traces including 9% East Europe? No one else saw that!
One of the problems is that our Viking ancestors visited and even settled in various parts of the British Isles making it hard to tell British from Scandinavian. Also there was more migration within Europe many hundreds of years back than we might realize. Finally each company uses different reference populations and techniques for their ethnicity estimates.
Predicting where your ancestors originated based on your DNA test is just not that accurate yet. The broad strokes are pretty good, but since the actual percentages vary quite a bit from company to company it is easy to see that there is much improvement needed.
Somewhat alarmed that 23andMe, which I had always thought was the most accurate of the three, did not predict Irene’s Scandinavian correctly, I decided to double check the predictions for my Norwegian-American Dad, as well as my brother who is tested at all three of the main companies.
23andMe lists Dad’s Scandinavian at 72.8% which is actually an improvement over the estimates in 2012 which are pictured in this old post: http://blog.kittycooper.com/2012/12/new-ancestry-composition-tool-at-23andme/ but the 9.8% British is a puzzle, Is it really British or are they Scandinavian? Remember my Viking ancestors did a lot of visiting there.
My brother and I know our ancestry for the last 300 or so years. Our mother was half German Jewish and half German Bavarian, back to the 1700s. Our dad’s ancestors, as previously mentioned, were all Norwegian for more than 500 years except for one fourth grandad born in 1722 who was a German engineer (expected to contribute about 2% of Dad’s DNA).
A little over a year ago I did a comparison of the DNA ethnicities predicted for my brother at the three main companies, 23andMe, Ancestry, and Family Tree DNA. I sent cousin Irene to that article – http://blog.kittycooper.com/2016/04/ancestry-composition-comparisons-a-case-study/ – but upon reviewing it, I noticed that it was a bit out of date, so here is an update.
23andMe has added a number of fun features. A particularly useful one is a button to let you share your ancestry report via a link which you can either copy or send using email, facebook, or twitter. Irene used that feature to share her predicted ancestry with me.
23andMe has also changed the presentation of the parental split of your ancestry to include percentages which is very nice (you need a parent tested to get this). My brother’s percentages have not changed very much but now I can see that the trace of gypsy (South Asian) is on dad’s side. Maybe the 2% British from dad is that German fourth grandad. The Jewish DNA is the same 22% that all the companies see and mother’s Bavarian must be the traces of Scandinavian, German, East European, and Balkan.
The timeline representation shown below is an interesting idea but remember that it is just an approximation. The possible empty slots for Finnish ancestors on Dad’s tree are all back in the 1600s. There is no known Finn in the predicted time spot.
A while back I did a post showing how to get the actual ancestry composition segments from the 23andMe chromosome representation, see http://blog.kittycooper.com/2016/12/ancestry-composition-numbers-by-segment-at-23andme-com/ – this is still one of my favorite features.
Ancestry has not changed its predictions much, My brother is still 62% Scandinavian and 22% Ashkenazi Jewish plus many trace regions for the non Scandinavian part of the German Bavarian. However the page is much more attractive to look at plus it includes the genetic communities feature discussed in this post http://blog.kittycooper.com/2017/03/genetic-communities-at-ancestry-are-live/ – my brother is in the Western Norwegian community.
Family Tree DNA has significantly changed their predictions for my brother, with the exception of the Ashkenazi which has gone down just a little from 18% to 16%. There is no more British, the Scandinavian DNA is halved to a mere 11% and most everything is now just lumped into “West and Central Europe.” Checking Dad’s account there he shows 89% Scandinavian so most of that has morphed into Western Europe for my brother.
To get to the nice map display shown here which gives breakdowns on the left and a map on the right you have to click on View myOrigins Map on the first clunky ancestry composition page. That next page, shown above, has a nice feature, if you opt in, of showing your shared ancestry with relatives, but in just one or two broad categories. For us those are European and Jewish.
Apologies to the newer testing companies, MyHeritage, and LivingDNA, for whom I have no results for my brother yet. I also looked at the places where I uploaded his results, DNA.land and GEDmatch. Those have not changed since the original article cited above.
UPDATE 30 May 2017: So after I published this post and went to sleep an email arrived … MyHeritage DNA ethnicity results have just been released! A quick check of my eight family members there showed that the Ashkenazi and Scandinavian are being predicted accurately for my immediate family. However my half Norwegian, half colonial American (English) second cousin is being predicted as 97% Scandinavian! Another case of English being viking?