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Table of Contents
It is impossible to discuss genetic genealogy without using terms specific to this field. Kelly Wheaton has put together a wonderful lesson series for newbies that should help you learn the language and more importantly clarify many of the concepts:
More classes and tutorials are listed below.
There is also a new book out that is a great help: Genetic Genealogy: The Basics and Beyond by Emily Aulicino.
Is there an acronym or abbreviation list somewhere?
The ISOGG wiki has this list
The DNA Adoption website has this list
The ISOGG wiki has detailed explanations of all these terms.
The DNA Adoption website has this glossary
For a more in depth understanding try Kelly Wheaton’s lessons on autosomal DNA
Roberta Estes explains this very well in her blog article on that subject:
To learn more about DNA testing I recommend you read these articles by Cece Moore at geni.com:
This depends on your goals and your budget. ISOGG has a comparison chart of the testing companies here: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Autosomal_DNA_testing_comparison_chart
My personal recommendations on where to test are as follows. If you are interested the health issues (disabled but you can upload elsewhere for those) and/or want the best ancestry composition then test at 23andme. If you are adopted or have Jewish ancestry, start with the family finder test at familytreeDNA.com. If you have colonial ancestry the best database may be at ancestry.com (USA only) but they have the fewest tools for comparing DNA, however those results can be transferred to FamilyTreeDNA for a fee. Wherever you test, upload your results to GEDmatch.com for the best ancestry composition tools and to compare with testers from other companies
Note that if you are searching for a specific surname a Y test at familytreeDNA.com might make more sense. If your puzzle is on the maternal line then their mtDNA test may be what you want. If you are interested in your deep ancestry then either Britain’s DNA or the Genome 2.0 test at National Geographic may have your answers.
Read this for more thoughts on which DNA test to do:
ISOGG has pages on the other tests also:
ISOGG has a page on shipping DNA kits which includes details of package forwarders that some ISOGG members have used to order a DNA test kit and bypass the country restrictions and/or the excessive courier charges:
As many relatives as you can talk into doing it! Best to get the oldest generation tested now while they are still here and also their genes are closest to your ancestors. But again, it depends on your goals. Personally I have found 2nd cousins to be very useful for isolating matches to a specific family line.
You can go to http://www.dnaadoption.com and learn more about using DNA for adoptees. In addition, there is a DNA group specific to adoptees at http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/dnaadoption/info . Finally, there is a group of Search Angels willing to help you out with your basic Adoption search. Find out more at http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/SoaringAngels/info
From ISOGG in 2005
from Kelly Wheaton
The National Genealogical Society has a for pay course but have no reviews of it
Coursera.org has two free courses on DNA which get technical very quickly but early lessons may be of use:
and this Utube video with Cece’s presentation
and some links with more up to date screen shots here:
See this article for the percentages:
and this one for the expected number of cMs and segments
Most likely you have more than one common ancestor which makes your relationship look closer than it is. If you come from a very endogenous population such as Ashkenazim or Mennonite then all your relationships will look closer than they are
GEDmatch has a tool for looking at your data to see how likely it is that your parents are related
David Pike has a number of tools also for looking at your raw data
By the way, the abbreviation MRCA is used for “Most Recent Common Ancestor.”
Kitty did a blog post on that subject:
With smaller segments it becomes a matter of percentages. Where
IBS = Identical By State = by chance
IBD = Identical By Descent = inherited
(per analysis by John Walden)
(see http://dna-footprints.com/203/the-abcs-of-dna-ibd-vs-ibs/for good explanations of these terms)
11 cM or greater matching segment: >99% IBD, <1% IBS
10 cM matching segment: 99% IBD, 1% IBS
9 cM matching segment: 80% IBD, 20% IBS
8 cM matching segment: 50% IBD, 50% IBS
7 cM matching segment: 30% IBD, 70% IBS
6 cM matching segment: 20% IBD, 80% IBS
5 cM matching segment: 5% IBD, 95% IBS
4 cM matching segment: ca 1% IBD, ca 99% IBS
An Ashkenazi cousin claims that it is not worth bothering with matches of less than 23cM in that population group
You can be anywhere from 4th to 14th cousins. See this article
Maybe. The X chromosome can reach farther back in time than the other autosomes. The approximation I have heard is that the X recombines at about 2/3 the rate of the other chromosomes. Since X chromosome matching was added to Family Tree DNA ,there have been many questions and good blog posts on the subject.
The lists below are taken from Kitty’s post What does shared X DNA really mean?
X marks the spot by Roberta Estes
Fan charts of X inheritance by Blaine Bettinger
Steve Handy’s post on the X
- Debbie Parker Wayne, “X-DNA Inheritance Charts
Please send them in, someone on the list once posted this terrific introduction he uses in his.
“I would like to share genomes at a basic level (no health reporting, only shows where we match on our chromosomes) to see where we overlap and perhaps find our common ancestors.”
My ancestry is half XYZ and half ABC yet my ancestry composition is showing only a little of each of those and lots of PQR?
None of the testing companies have completely accurate predictions. 23andme is the best of the lot. All are dependent on who has tested from which countries. If your population group is not well represented then no predictions are going to be all that accurate. Plus there was plenty of population movement hundreds of years back that you may not be aware of.
Try uploading to GEDmatch.com and using their admixture tools. Plus read this detailed blog entry from Roberta Estes on that issue:
About 120 from the last 10-12 generations. See this article for the details
Probably not useful unless all your ancestors are from one country. Read what Debbie Kennett says:
and another more detailed and disappointed blog post from someone who tried it:
The ISOGG wiki has pages listing autosomal DNA tools, Y-DNA tools and mtDNA tools:
Autosomal tools: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Autosomal_DNA_tools
Y DNA tools: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_tools
mtDNA tools: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/MtDNA_tools
Kelly Wheaton has a good list of tools here:
and the author of this FAQ, Kitty Cooper has a list of her tools and her other favorite tools here: http://blog.kittycooper.com/tools/
ISOGG has an entry with many links about chromosome mapping here: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Chromosome_mapping
which include links to Tim Jantzen’s methodology
Roberta Estes does a very good job of explaining the chromosome mapping technique in this blog post:
The National Library of Medicine has a chromosome by chromosome resource. Of course most genetic research has concentrated on diseases and problems not traits.
UCSC has a Genome Browser website. This site contains the reference sequence and working draft assemblies for a large collection of genomes. It also provides portals to the ENCODE and Neandertal projects. Located at http://genome.ucsc.edu/
23andme’s one to one comparison does show some traits (under family and friends, gene comparison)
When you are no longer a newbie feel free to stay and help. However you may pose your more advanced questions on the rootsweb list for DNA and genealogy or the one for autosomal DNA:
There is an in-progess standards document published here:
That document is intended to provide ethical and usage standards for the genealogical community to follow when purchasing, recommending, sharing, or writing about the results of DNA testing for ancestry.
To ensure that this document accurately reflects the standards embraced by the community, they are opening this document for a period of public comment, from May 12, 2014 through June 15, 2014.
Yes there is one coming up in August in Washington, D.C. See http://i4gg.org/
And there is Genetic Genealogy Ireland 2014 from 17th to 19th October 2014 in Dublin, Ireland as part of the Back To Our Past show.http://www.backtoourpast.com/
Plus many of the lectures from the Who Do You Think You Are 2014 a recent conference in the UK are available on youtube at